FRY, Carrol L. Jekyll and Mr. Messent, dir.
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Repris dans Literature of the Occult, op. Mars, eds. Jekyll, Mr. Tauris, , pages. Mondodari, Classici del mistero , , pages. Repris dans The Gothic, Fred Botting, ed. Cerina, dir. Browne, eds. Becker, ed. Amsterdam, New York, et al. Bibliographie, pp. Dublin, Columba Press, Reihe Literatur, , , pp.
Texte en ligne. Mondadori, Oscar Narrativa , , pages. Rickard, ed. Dick, Stanilaw Lem, J. Reihe Literatur, , Avec chronologie de Bram Stoker. Tague, ed.
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Media, Carter, ed. Anaya, Tus Libros, 39 ,, pages. Related Papers. By Norbert Spehner. By yvonne garrett. Seward to analyze the behavior of their patient Renfield who they learn is directly influenced by Dracula. They also research historical events, folklore, and superstitions from various cultures to create an understanding of Dracula's powers and weaknesses. Van Helsing also establishes a criminal profile on Dracula in order to better understand his actions and predict his movements.
Arthur Holmwood's fortune assists in funding the entire operation and expenses. As they learn the various properties Dracula had purchased, the male protagonists team up to raid each property and are several times confronted by Dracula. As they discover each of the boxed graves scattered throughout London, they pry them open to place and seal wafers of sacramental bread within.
This act renders the boxes of earth completely useless to Dracula as he is unable to open, enter or further transport them. After Dracula learns of the group's plot against him, he attacks Mina on three occasions, and feeds Mina his own blood to control her. This curses Mina with vampirism and changes her but does not completely turn her into a vampire. Van Helsing attempts to bless Mina through prayer and by placing a wafer of sacrament against her forehead, although it burns her upon contact leaving a wretched scar. Under this curse, Mina oscillates from consciousness to a semi-trance during which she perceives Dracula's surroundings and actions.
Van Helsing is able to use hypnotism at the hour of dawn and put her into this trance to further track his movements. Mina, afraid of Dracula's link with her, urges the team not to tell her their plans out of fear that Dracula will be listening.
After the protagonists discover and sterilize 49 boxes found throughout his lairs in London, they learn that Dracula has fled with the missing 50th box back to his castle in Transylvania. They pursue him under the guidance of Mina. They split up into teams once they reach Europe; Van Helsing and Mina team up to locate the castle of Dracula while the others attempt to ambush the boat Dracula is using to reach his home. Van Helsing raids the castle and destroys the vampire "sisters". Upon discovering Dracula being transported by Gypsies , Harker shears Dracula through the throat with a kukri while the mortally wounded Quincey stabs the Count in the heart with a Bowie knife.
Dracula crumbles to dust, and Mina is freed from her curse of vampirism. The book closes with a note left by Jonathan Harker seven years after the events of the novel, detailing his married life with Mina and the birth of their son, whom they name after all four members of the party, but address as "Quincey".
Quincey is depicted sitting on the knee of Van Helsing as they recount their adventure. In , two years after Stoker's death, the short story " Dracula's Guest " was posthumously published. It was, according to most contemporary critics, the deleted first or second chapter from the original manuscript  and the one which gave the volume its name,  but which the original publishers deemed unnecessary to the overall story. It is Walpurgis Night , and in spite of the coachman's warnings, the young Englishman foolishly leaves his hotel and wanders through a dense forest alone.
Along the way he feels he is being watched by a tall and thin stranger possibly Count Dracula. The short story climaxes in an old graveyard, where in a marble tomb with a large iron stake driven into it , the Englishman encounters a sleeping female vampire called Countess Dolingen. This malevolent and beautiful vampire awakens from her marble bier to conjure a snowstorm before being struck by lightning and returning to her eternal prison. However, the Englishman's troubles are not quite over, as he is dragged away by an unseen force and rendered unconscious.
He awakes to find a "gigantic" wolf lying on his chest and licking at his throat; however, the wolf merely keeps him warm and protects him until help arrives. When the Englishman is finally taken back to his hotel, a telegram awaits him from his expectant host Dracula, with a warning about "dangers from snow and wolves and night". An excerpt from the original final chapter was removed, in which Dracula's castle falls apart as he dies, hiding the fact that vampires were ever there. As we looked there came a terrible convulsion of the earth so that we seemed to rock to and fro and fell to our knees.
At the same moment with a roar which seemed to shake the very heavens the whole castle and the rock and even the hill on which it stood seemed to rise into the air and scatter in fragments while a mighty cloud of black and yellow smoke volume on volume in rolling grandeur was shot upwards with inconceivable rapidity. Then there was a stillness in nature as the echoes of that thunderous report seemed to come as with the hollow boom of a thunder-clap - the long reverberating roll which seems as though the floors of heaven shook.
Then down in a mighty ruin falling whence they rose came the fragments that had been tossed skywards in the cataclysm. Between and , Stoker was a business manager for the world-famous Lyceum Theatre in London, where he supplemented his income by writing a large number of sensational novels, his most famous being the vampire tale Dracula published on 26 May Throughout the s and s, authors such as H. Wells wrote many tales in which fantastic creatures threatened the British Empire.
Invasion literature was at a peak, and Stoker's formula of an invasion of England by continental European influences was by very familiar to readers of fantastic adventure stories. Victorian readers enjoyed it as a good adventure story like many others, but it would not reach its iconic legendary status until later in the 20th century when film versions began to appear.
Before writing Dracula , Stoker spent seven years researching European folklore and stories of vampires, being most influenced by Emily Gerard 's essay, "Transylvania Superstitions". Later he would also claim that he had a nightmare, caused by eating too much crab meat covered with mayonnaise sauce, about a "vampire king" rising from his grave. Despite being the most widely known vampire novel, Dracula was not the first. It was preceded and partly inspired by Sheridan Le Fanu 's " Carmilla ", about a lesbian vampire who preys on a lonely young woman, and by Varney the Vampire , a lengthy penny dreadful serial from the mid-Victorian period by James Malcolm Rymer.
The image of a vampire portrayed as an aristocratic man, like the character of Dracula, was created by John Polidori in " The Vampyre " , during the summer spent with Frankenstein creator Mary Shelley , her husband, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and Lord Byron in The Lyceum Theatre, where Stoker worked between and , was headed by the actor-manager Henry Irving , who was Stoker's real-life inspiration for Dracula's mannerisms and who Stoker hoped would play Dracula in a stage version. The Dead Un-Dead was one of Stoker's original titles for Dracula , and up until a few weeks before publication, the manuscript was titled simply The Un-Dead.
Stoker's notes for Dracula show that the name of the count was originally "Count Wampyr", but while doing research, Stoker became intrigued by the name "Dracula", after reading William Wilkinson 's book Account of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia with Political Observations Relative to Them London ,  which he found in the Whitby Library, and consulted a number of times during visits to Whitby in the s.
Murnau 's unauthorized film adaptation Nosferatu was released in , the popularity of the novel increased considerably, owing to the controversy caused when Stoker's widow tried to have the film removed from public circulation. Some copies survived and found their way into theatres. Eventually Florence Stoker would simply give up the fight against public displays of the film. When it was first published, in , Dracula was not an immediate bestseller , although reviewers were unstinting in their praise. According to literary historians Nina Auerbach and David J.
Skal in the Norton Critical Edition, the novel has become more significant for modern readers than it was for contemporary Victorian readers, most of whom enjoyed it just as a good adventure story; it reached its broad iconic legendary classic status only later in the 20th century when the movie versions appeared. It did not make much money for Stoker; the last year of his life he was so poor that he had to petition for a compassionate grant from the Royal Literary Fund,  and in his widow was forced to sell his notes and outlines of the novel at a Sotheby's auction, where they were purchased for a little over 2 pounds.
Murnau's unauthorized adaptation of the story in the form of Nosferatu was released in theatres in , Stoker's widow took affront, and during the legal battle that followed, the novel's popularity started to grow. Nosferatu was followed by a highly successful stage adaptation, touring the UK for three years before arriving in the US where Stoker's creation caught Hollywood's attention, and after the American movie version was released, the book has never been out of print. I think it is the very best story of diablerie which I have read for many years.
Similarly good reviews appeared when the book was published in the U. In the last several decades, literary and cultural scholars have offered diverse analyses of Stoker's novel and the character of Count Dracula. Bentley reads Dracula as an embodiment of the Freudian id. Senf reads the novel as a response to the powerful New Woman,  while Christopher Craft sees Dracula as embodying latent homosexuality. Arata interprets the events of the novel as anxiety over colonialism and racial mixing ,  and Talia Schaffer construes the novel as an indictment of Oscar Wilde. Bruno Starrs understands the novel to be a pro- Catholic pamphlet promoting proselytization.
Although Dracula is a work of fiction, it does contain some historical references. The historical connections with the novel and how much Stoker knew about the history are a matter of conjecture and debate. During his main reign — , "Vlad the Impaler" is said to have killed from 40, to , European civilians political rivals, criminals, and anyone he considered "useless to humanity" , mainly by impaling. The sources depicting these events are records by Saxon settlers in neighbouring Transylvania, who had frequent clashes with Vlad III.
Vlad III is revered as a folk hero by Romanians for driving off the invading Ottoman Turks , of which his impaled victims are said to have included as many as , Historically, the name "Dracula" is derived from a Chivalric order called the Order of the Dragon , founded by Sigismund of Luxembourg then king of Hungary to uphold Christianity and defend the Empire against the Ottoman Turks. Vlad II Dracul , father of Vlad III, was admitted to the order around , after which Vlad II wore the emblem of the order and later, as ruler of Wallachia, his coinage bore the dragon symbol, from which the name "Dracula" is derived.
The name "Dracula" became popular in Romania after publication of Stoker's book. Contrary to popular belief, the name Dracula does not translate to "son of the devil" in Romanian , which would be " pui de drac ". Stoker came across the name Dracula in his reading on Romanian history , and chose this to replace the name Count Wampyr originally intended for his villain.
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Some Dracula scholars, led by Elizabeth Miller , argue that Stoker knew little of the historic Vlad III except for the name "Dracula", whereas in the novel, Stoker mentions the Dracula who fought against the Turks, and was later betrayed by his brother, historical facts which unequivocally point to Vlad III:. Who was it but one of my own race who as Voivode crossed the Danube and beat the Turk on his own ground? This was a Dracula indeed!
Woe was it that his own unworthy brother, when he had fallen, sold his people to the Turk and brought the shame of slavery on them! Was it not this Dracula, indeed, who inspired that other of his race who in a later age again and again brought his forces over the great river into Turkey-land; who, when he was beaten back, came again, and again, though he had to come alone from the bloody field where his troops were being slaughtered, since he knew that he alone could ultimately triumph! Chapter 3, pp He must, indeed, have been that Voivode Dracula who won his name against the Turk, over the great river on the very frontier of Turkey-land.
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Chapter 18, p Many of Stoker's biographers and literary critics have found strong similarities to the earlier Irish writer Sheridan Le Fanu 's classic of the vampire genre, Carmilla. The folkloric figure of Abhartach has also been suggested as a source. In , McNally additionally suggested that Stoker was influenced by the history of Hungarian Countess Elizabeth Bathory , who tortured and killed between 36 and young women.
Haining and Tremaine maintain that during this visit, Stoker was especially impressed by Slains Castle's interior and the surrounding landscape. Miller and Leatherdale question the stringency of this connection. One scholar has suggested that Stoker chose Whitby as the site of Dracula's first appearance in England because of the Synod of Whitby , given the novel's preoccupation with timekeeping and calendar disputes.
The story of Dracula has been the basis for numerous films and plays. Stoker himself wrote the first theatrical adaptation, which was presented at the Lyceum Theatre under the title Dracula, or The Undead shortly before the novel's publication and performed only once. The first motion picture to feature Dracula, Dracula's Death was produced in Hungary in The film, now lost , however, was not an adaptation of Stoker's novel, and featured an original story. The following year, German director F. Murnau directed Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens. Prana Film, the production company, had been unable to obtain permission to adapt the story from Florence Stoker , Bram's widow, so screenwriter Henrik Galeen was told to alter numerous details to avoid legal trouble.
Galeen transplanted the action of the story from s England to s Germany and reworked several characters, dropping some such as Lucy and all three of her suitors , and renaming others Dracula became Orlok , Jonathan Harker became Thomas Hutter, Mina became Ellen, and so on.
Elizabeth Miller (academic)
This attempt to avoid prosecution failed, however: Florence Stoker sued Prana Film, and all prints of the film were ordered destroyed. Although the film did survive the court-ordered purge, subsequent rereleases have typically undone some of the changes, most notably restoring the original character names a practice also followed by Werner Herzog in his remake of Murnau's film, Nosferatu the Vampyre. Following Nosferatu , Florence Stoker licensed the story to playwright Hamilton Deane , whose stage play adaptation toured England for several years before settling down in London. Balderston to revise Deane's script in advance of its American premiere.
Balderston significantly compressed the story, most notably consolidation or removing several characters. The Deane play and its Balderston revisions introduced an expanded role and backstory for Renfield, who now replaced Jonathan Harker as Dracula's solicitor in the first part of the story, combined Mina Harker and Lucy Westenra into a single character named Lucy , and omitted both Arthur Holmwood and Quincey Morris entirely.
Seward would reprise for the English-language version of the Universal Studios film production. Universal Studios continued to feature the character of Dracula in many of their horror films from the s and s. It was an international hit for Hammer Film, however, and both Lee and Cushing would reprise their roles multiple times over the next decade and half, concluding with The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires which Cushing but not Lee in Christopher Lee would also take on the role of Dracula in Count Dracula , a Spanish-Italian-German coproduction notable for its adherence to the plot of the original novel for instance, it was the first film version of the story to include the character of Quincey Morris.
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